Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that was first synthesized in 1972 by researchers at the Tokyo-based pharmaceutical company, Sankyo. I have not been able to find the names of the individuals involved in its discovery. It was initially developed as a more potent and less toxic alternative to other aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin and kanamycin. Amikacin was approved for medical use in the United States in 1984 and has since been used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including those caused by gram-negative organisms that are resistant to other antibiotics.
I am not aware of any specific controversies related to the discovery of amikacin. However, as with any medication, there have been concerns about the development and use of amikacin. One of the main concerns is the potential for the development of resistance to the antibiotic, which can occur when the drug is overused or misused. This is a common issue with many antibiotics, as bacteria can evolve to become resistant to the drugs designed to kill them. Additionally, amikacin can cause certain side effects, such as hearing loss, kidney damage, and allergic reactions, especially with prolonged use or high doses. It’s important to use antibiotics like Amikacin only when it is really necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Amikacin was first approved for medical use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1984. It was licensed for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. It was also made available and used in other countries including the United Kingdom around the same time or shortly after. Since then, it has been used in the treatment of a wide range of bacterial infections, and is still available by prescription today.
According to the BNF, amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used to treat serious infections caused by gram-negative bacteria, particularly those that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is usually given by injection or infusion into a vein, and is usually reserved for use in hospital-acquired infections or for patients who are unable to take other types of antibiotics. The BNF also states that amikacin should be used with caution in patients with kidney or hearing problems, and that regular monitoring of blood and urine tests is required to check for side effects.
NICE guidelines recommend that amikacin should be used as a second-line treatment after less toxic antibiotics have been tried. It should be prescribed only by healthcare professionals who have experience in the use of aminoglycosides, and only when the infecting organism has been identified and found to be sensitive to amikacin. The guidelines also recommend that regular monitoring of blood and urine tests is required to check for side effects, particularly kidney and ear toxicity.